Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus and Olfactory Bulb
Professor Ronald McKay explains that neurons in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb are unique in that they are produced throughout life. This is known as neurogenesis.
So, in the nervous system, in most regions of the nervous system the structure of the nervous system is established during development and neurons are made in a very precise sequence during development. It is like the way people now manufacture modern motorcars, that you donâ€™t have all the parts lying around and just go and get them when you need them, the parts are provided in a very specific timeline. In most regions of the brain, you donâ€™t produce anything more once youâ€™re born, all the neurons are there. But in the hippocampus and in the olfactory bulb there are two regions where new neurons are made throughout life and the answer to the question, "why?" is not completely clear. But it looks like, in the olfactory bulb, itâ€™s because the olfactory stimuli are constantly stressing the cells, and so you have to have a mechanism for replacing them. But, in the hippocampus, the answer is less clear, but it has to do with the acquisition of new memories.
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Professor Fred Gage explains that neurogenesis only occurs in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb in humans, and discusses why this might be so.
Research continues to show that stem cells could be harnessed for therapeutic purposes.
Professor Pierre Lledo explains that the olfactory bulb is a primary site of neurogenesis - one of the few areas in the brain where new neurons are generated throughout life.
Professor Ronald McKay discusses how he identified stem cells, and how they can explain the fundamental molecular processes of the nervous system.
Professor Fred Gage explains that neurogenesis is an unstable process and is highly regulated by the environment.
Professor Ronald McKay explains that although the underlying machinery of the brain is hardwired, it maintains a huge amount of flexibility to interact with the environment.
A overview of perception-related content on Genes to Cognition Online.
New neurons in the hippocampus may remember the timing of events.
The more difficult a learning task, the more new neurons survive.
The dentate gyrus is one of the few regions in the brain where adult neurogenesis has been confirmed. It may play an important role in translating neural codes for creating memories.